pinochet's military dictatorship

All political activity was declared "in recess". Although this association may not be historically all that common, I analyze one case, the military dictatorship in Chile (1973–90), and try to show that a form of rule of law was operative within the regime, particularly during the last nine years of military rule. Historian Hugo Fruhling's work highlights the multifaceted nature of Vicaria. The exact nature and extent of this support is disputed. [33] However, these high estimates have not held to later scrutiny. Chile was neutral during the Falkland War, but its Westinghouse long-range radar deployed at Punta Arenas, in southern Chile, gave the British task force early warning of Argentinian air attacks, which allowed British ships and troops in the war zone to take defensive action. "[73] Critics of the 1980 Constitution argue that the constitution was created not to build a democracy, but to consolidate power within the central government while limiting the amount of sovereignty allowed to the people with little political presence. [143] The dictatorship did however never suppressed Mexican music as a whole but came distinguish different strands, some of which were actually promoted. [143] The music of Silvio Rodríguez became first known in Chile this way. 88–89. The figure was twice as much in neighbouring Argentina and Uruguay, and even higher in developed countries—South Korea attaining a record 98 per cent coverage. Due to the reduction in public spending, tens of thousands of employees were fired from other state-sector jobs. [3] The dictatorship's effects on Chilean political and economic life continue to be felt. 1996. [88] Capitalist involvement was increased, the Chilean pension system and healthcare were privatized, and Superior Education was also placed in private hands. Large foreign banks reinstated the credit cycle, as the Junta saw that the basic state obligations, such as resuming payment of principal and interest installments, were honored. [128], Reportedly one of Juan Velasco Alvarado's main goal was to militarily reconquer the lands lost by Peru to Chile in the War of the Pacific. I take political responsibility for everything that was done. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Financial conglomerates became major beneficiaries of the liberalized economy and the flood of foreign bank loans. He allowed the peso to float and reinstated restrictions on the movement of capital in and out of the country. [142] The government censored non-sympathetic individuals while taking control of mass media. Pinochet's Economic Policies. A survey published by pollster CERC on the eve of the 40th anniversary commemorations of the coup gave some idea of how Chileans perceived the dictatorship. They co-ordinated two prominent opposition groups called El Poder Feminino ("female power"), and Solidaridad, Orden y Libertad ("solidarity, order, and freedom"). Pinochet meeting with U.S. President Jimmy Carter in Washington, D.C., September 6, 1977. After the military took over the government in 1973, a period of dramatic economic changes began. [134][135] When Pinochet traveled to the funeral of Francisco Franco in 1975 the President of France Valéry Giscard d'Estaing pressured the Spanish government to refuse Pinochet to be at the crowning of Juan Carlos I of Spain by letting Spanish authorities know that Giscard would not be there if Pinochet was present. Chile along with Colombia, were the only countries in South America to criticize the use of force by Argentina in its war with the UK over the Falkland Islands. [111] Perón died in July 1974 and was succeeded by his wife Isabel Martínez de Perón who was overthrown in 1976 by the Argentine military who installed themselves as a new dictatorship in Argentina. Chile's new constitution was approved in a national plebiscite held on September 11, 1980. Only three weeks into his new post, Pinochet played a central role in the CIA-sponsored … The previous drop in foreign aid during the Allende years was immediately reversed following Pinochet's ascension; Chile received US$322.8 million in loans and credits in the year following the coup. President of Argentina Juan Perón condemned the 1973 coup as a "fatality for the continent" stating that Pinochet represented interests "well known" to him. [108] Pinochet attended the funeral of General Francisco Franco, dictator of Spain from 1936–75, in late 1975. The military installed themselves in power as a Military Government Junta, composed of the heads of the Army, Navy, Air Force and Carabineros (police). However, the military remained out of civilian control for several years after the junta itself had lost power. As a result of this, Manuel Contreras, Director of DINA, threatened Cardinal Silva Henriquez that his safety could be at risk if the Church continued to interfere which in turn resulted in death threats and intimidation from agents of the regime. Lanham, Md. [165] Despite this statement, Pinochet always refused to be confronted to Chilean justice, claiming that he was senile. Canto Porque es Necesario Cantar: The New Song Movement in Chile, 1973-1983. [101] In that referendum, the Chilean people denied Pinochet a new mandate, opening the way for the reestablishment of democracy in 1990. The military were staunch supporters of the constitution and therefore believed that Allende had lost legitimacy as Chile's leader. That was a key opening. [142] According to Eduardo Carrasco of Quilapayún in the first week after the coup, the military organized a meeting with folk musicians where they announced that the traditional instruments charango and quena were banned. Pinochet is said to have been angered by Leigh's continued founding of a structure to divide the executive and legislative branches, eventually leading to Pinochet consolidating power and Leigh being dumped from the regime. By the end of the 1960s, there were 8,000 centres involving 400,000 members. Domestically, it was the second most powerful institution, behind Pinochet's government. This established a series of provisions that would eventually lead to the 1988 Chilean national plebiscite on October 5 of that year. All Rights Reserved Ending the dictatorship (1973 -1990) was the goal, and the struggle so many of us had in common. Giscard d'Estaing et Messmer pourraient être entendus sur l'aide aux dictatures sud-américaines, RAPPORT FAIT AU NOM DE LA COMMISSION DES AFFAIRES ÉTRANGÈRES SUR LA PROPOSITION DE RÉSOLUTION (n° 1060), tendant à la création d'une commission d'enquête sur le rôle de la France dans le soutien aux régimes militaires d'Amérique latine entre 1973 et 1984, PAR M. ROLAND BLUM, Argentine : M. de Villepin défend les firmes françaises, "La veces que Pinochet casi Ataca al Perú de Sorpresa", "Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library and Museum", "Música y clandestinidad en dictadura: la represión, la circulación de músicas de resistencia y el casete clandestino", "Situación actual de la música folklórica chilena. At that point, unemployment was extremely high, above 20 percent, and a large proportion of the banking sector had become bankrupt. Pinochet’s military dictatorship came to an end on 1988 when he decided to hold a referendum. Pinochet and Perón are both reported to have felt uncomfortable during the meeting. [52] According to a study in Latin American Perspectives,[53] at least 200,000 Chileans (about 2% of Chile's 1973 population) were forced into exile. [7] As the CIA revealed in 2000, "In the 1960s and the early 1970s, as part of the US Government policy to try to influence events in Chile, the CIA undertook specific covert action projects in Chile ... to discredit Marxist-leaning political leaders, especially Dr. Salvador Allende, and to strengthen and encourage their civilian and military opponents to prevent them from assuming power. [37] In the days immediately following the coup, the Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs informed Henry Kissinger that the National Stadium was being used to hold 5,000 prisoners. [117] Britain formally withdrew its Santiago ambassador in 1974, however reinstated the position in 1980 under the Margaret Thatcher government.[118]. The following period was characterized by new reforms and economic recovery. Before that period ended, a candidate for president was to be proposed by the Commanders-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and Carabinero Chief General for the following period of eight years. A History of Chile, 1808-1994. Leigh criticized Pinochet for having joined the coup very late and then pretending to keep all power for himself. The period ended with the international debt crisis and the collapse of the Chilean economy. Later, in 1980, the regime replaced the Chilean Constitution of 1925 with a new constitution. This over-representation was crucial for UDI in obtaining places in parliament and securing its political future. At the age of 17, he embarked on a military career, quickly rising through the ranks to be appointed Commander in Chief in 1973 by President Salvador Allende, the world's first democratically-elected Marxist leader. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [155] However, in 2019 the Chilean government faced public scrutiny for its economic policies. Ensalaco, Mark. Roberts, K.M. [158] The latest is Russia, for whom David Christian warned in 1991 that "dictatorial government presiding over a transition to capitalism seems one of the more plausible scenarios, even if it does so at a high cost in human rights violations."[159]. In 1986, Chilean security forces discovered 80 tons of munitions, including more than three thousand M-16 rifles and more than two million rounds of ammunition, at the tiny fishing harbor of Carrizal Bajo, smuggled ashore from Cuban fishing trawlers off the coast of Chile. Pennsylvania Studies in Human Rights. [60] This meant that dissidents who were murdered outright had their deaths reported in media as if they had occurred in a mutual exchange of gunfire. [4], The centre-left coalition Concertación was more united and coherent. [31] Steve J. Stern spoke of a politicide to describe "a systematic project to destroy an entire way of doing and understanding politics and governance."[32]. A document released by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in 2000, titled "CIA Activities in Chile", revealed that the CIA actively supported the military junta during and after the overthrow of Allende and that it made many of Pinochet's officers into paid contacts of the CIA or U.S. military, even though some were known to be involved in human rights abuses. Apart from Le Monde, newspapers remained silent about this request. Howeve… The military used the alleged breakdown of democracy and the economic cri… On June 29, the Blindados No. In general, Pinochet’s dictatorship was an integral element of the chain of right-wing regimes in the Southern Cone that obtained the support of the … Augusto Pinochet (1915-2006) was a Chilean dictator born in Valparaíso, Chile. Though, Pinochet's Chilean Air Force General Fernando Matthei opposed a preventive war and responded that "I can guarantee that the Peruvians would destroy the Chilean Air Force in the first five minutes of the war". "[8] The CIA worked with right-wing Chilean politicians, military personnel, and journalists to undermine socialism in Chile. Hudson, Rex A., ed. By late 1980, at least 100 highly trained MIR guerrillas had reentered Chile and the MIR began building a base for future guerrilla operations in Neltume, a mountainous forest region in southern Chile. GPO for the Library of Congress. Though they soon lost most of their influence they were subjected to the same treatment that the UP members had been before them. In 1990, the LOCE act on education initiated the dismantlement of public education. [78], One of the first armed groups to oppose the dictatorship was the MIR, Movimiento de Izquierda Revolucionaria. The far-left and the far-right performed poorly in the election.[4]. El imaginario de rebeldía y disconformidad a través de la música rock en los años ´90. [55], Several scholars including Paul Zwier,[56] Peter Winn[57] and human rights organizations[58] have characterized the dictatorship as a police state exhibiting "repression of public liberties, the elimination of political exchange, limiting freedom of speech, abolishing the right to strike, freezing wages. On his 91st birthday on 25 November 2006, in a public statement to supporters, Pinochet for the first time claimed to accept "political responsibility" for what happened in Chile under his regime, though he still defended the 1973 coup against Salvador Allende. The Catholic Church, which at first expressed its gratitude to the armed forces for saving the country from the horrors of a "Marxist dictatorship" became, under the leadership of Cardinal Raúl Silva Henríquez, the most outspoken critic of the regime's social and economic policies. [156] Mass protests broke out throughout Santiago, due to increasing prices of the metro ticket. [69] [105][106] The government broke diplomatic relations with Cambodia in January 1974[107] and renewed ties with South Korea in October 1973[citation needed] and with South Vietnam in March 1974. Despite this plethora of evidence indicating a crucial US role in the emergence of Pinochet’s military dictatorship in Chile, there is an array of other factors which may have contributed to the 1973 coup d’état. November 1915 in Valparaíso; 10. To this day they are set down in the 1980 constitution, which always favored a minority that was close to the ruling regime. His years in power were marked by inflation, poverty, and the ruthless repression of opposition leaders. [82] The group also assassinated the author of the 1980 Constitution, Jaime Guzmán on 1 April 1991. The two countries (Chile and Argentina) finally agreed to papal mediation over the Beagle canal that finally ended in the Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1984 between Chile and Argentina (Tratado de Paz y Amistad). He returned to Chile in March 2000 but was not charged with the crimes against him. A right-wing authoritarian military dictatorship ruled Chile for seventeen years, between September 11, 1973 and March 11, 1990. Leigh recalls about that moment that, "Pinochet was furious, he hit the board, broke the glass, injured his hand a little and bled. In response Silva founded the Vicariate in its place. "[59], Starting in the late 1970s the regime began to use a tactic of faking combats, usually known by its Spanish name: "falsos enfrentamientos". [42] Among the killed and disappeared during the military regime were at least 663 MIR guerrillas. The Church published a newsletter called Solidarity published in Chile and abroad, and supplied the public with information through radio stations. In: Enrique R. Carrasco: "Autocratic Transitions to Liberalism: A Comparison of Chilean and Russian Structural Adjustment." [74] The constitution came into force on March 11, 1981. Due to intense U.S. Pressure at the last minute (while Pinochet's plane was halfway en route over the Pacific), Marcos cancelled the visit and denied Pinochet landing rights in the country. March 20, 2005, CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (. [68] Pinochet was impressed by their assertiveness as well as by their links to the financial world of the United States. This was a way of mobilizing sympathetic elements of the civil society in support for the dictatorship. A right-wing authoritarian military dictatorship ruled Chile for seventeen years, between September 11, 1973 and March 11, 1990. [146][143] Being distinctly Chilean the cueca was selected by the military dictatorship as a music to be promoted. Unemployment stands at 7% as of 2007, with poverty estimated at 18.2% for the same year, both relatively low for the region. Some economists argue that the recovery was due to an about-face turnaround of Pinochet's free market policy, since he nationalized many of the same industries that were nationalized under Allende and fired the Chicago Boys from their government posts.[87]. [44], According to the Latin American Institute on Mental Health and Human Rights, 200,000 people were affected by "extreme trauma"; this figure includes individuals executed, tortured, forcibly exiled, or having their immediate relatives put under detention. [119] Margaret Thatcher said that the day the radar was taken out of service for overdue maintenance was the day Argentinian fighter-bombers bombed the troopships Sir Galahad and Sir Tristram, leaving approximately 50 dead and 150 wounded. [145] The profiferation of pirate cassettes was enabled by tape recorders,[144] and in some cases this activity turned commercial as evidenced by the pirate cassette brand Cumbre y Cuatro. Two years after its ascension neoliberal economic reforms were implemented, in sharp contrast to Allende's leftist policies, advised by a team of free-market economists educated in US universities known as the Chicago Boys. [4] Aylwin spoke with authority about the need to clarify human rights violations but did not confront the dictatorship for it; in contrast, Büchi, as a former regime minister, lacked any credibility when dealing with human right violations. explain nehatomar7159 nehatomar7159 19.06.2018 Social Sciences Secondary School How did pinochets military dictatorship come to an end ? Sznajder, M. (1996). [67], Over time the dictatorship incorporated civilians into the government. [142], The military dictatorship sought to isolate Chilean radio listerners from the outside world by changing radio frequencies to middle wavelengths. [98] Family allowances in 1989 were 28% of what they had been in 1970 and the budgets for education, health and housing had dropped by over 20% on average. : Scarecrow Press. The opposition No campaign, headed by Ricardo Lagos, produced colorful, upbeat programs, telling the Chilean people to vote against the extension of the presidential term. Pinochet, a graduate of the military academy in Santiago (1936), was a career military officer who was appointed army commander in chief by President Allende 18 days before the coup, which he planned and led. In 1985, due to the Caso Degollados scandal ("case of the slit throats"), General César Mendoza resigned and was replaced by General Rodolfo Stange. Un espacio de seguridad.' Perón would have conceded on moving these exiles from the frontiers to eastern Argentina, but he warned "Perón takes his time, but accomplishes" (Perón tarda, pero cumple). Vicaria pursued a legal strategy of defending human rights, not a political strategy to re-democratise Chile. [123] Pinochet's controversial relationship with Thatcher led Labour Prime Minister Tony Blair to mock Thatcher's Conservatives as "the party of Pinochet" in 1999. Subsequently, MIR conducted several operations against the Pinochet government until the late 1980s. In: J. Samuel Valenzuela and Arturo Valenzuela (eds. So Pinochet lost his designation, military and political powers. [160] In 2013, the newspaper El Mercurio asked Chileans if the state had done enough to compensate victims of the dictatorship for the atrocities they suffered; 30% said yes, 36% said no, and the rest were undecided. Due to the same transitional provisions of the constitution, Pinochet remained as Commander-in-Chief of the Army, until March 1998. [143], Elements of military distrusted Mexican music which was widespread in the rural areas of south-central Chile. In particular, for the long-term effects of Pinochet's neoliberal policies. At the same time, a series of massive protests were organized, trying to cause the fall of the regime, which were efficiently repressed. [86], From an economic point of view, the era can be divided into two periods. The U.S. continued to give the junta substantial economic support between the years 1973–79, despite concerns from more liberal Congressmen, as seen from the results of the Church Committee. He participated in the design of important speeches of Pinochet, and provided frequent political and doctrinal advice and consultancy. [144] Cassettes aside, some music enthusiasts were able to supply themselves with rare or suppressed records with help of relatives in exile abroad. Once the Junta was in power, General Augusto Pinochet soon consolidated his control over the government. « Série B. Amérique 1952-1963. [104] Pinochet has nurtured his relationship with China. [100] Two of the four junta members were asserting their independence from Pinochet – Air Force Commander Matthei and Carabineros Commander Stange. [91] The central bank took over foreign debts. ): Karin Fischer: "The Influence of Neoliberals in Chile before, during, and after Pinochet" In: P. Mirowski, D. Plehwe (Hrsg. Shortly after the junta came to power, several communist countries, including the Soviet Union, North Vietnam, East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia, severed diplomatic relations with Chile however, Romania and the People's Republic of China both continued to maintain diplomatic relations with Chile. These women used many tactics to destabilise the Allende regime. The regime was characterized by the systematic suppression of political parties and the persecution of dissidents to an extent unprecedented in the history of Chile. [142] A key musician, Víctor Jara, was tortured and killed by elements of the military. [35] In 2011, the Chilean government officially recognized 36,948 survivors of torture and political imprisonment, as well as 3,095 people killed or disappeared at the hands of the military government.[36]. Under Pinochet, funding of military and internal defence spending rose 120% from 1974 to 1979. [51] Some 20,000–40,000 Chilean exiles were holders of passports stamped with the letter "L" (which stood for lista nacional), identifying them as persona non grata and had to seek permission before entering the country. A full-scale war was prevented only by the call off of the operation by Argentina due to military and political reasons. [28] With such strong repression, the Catholic church became the only public voice allowed within Chile. Instigated by the anti-Marxist militia Patria y Libertad ("country and freedom"), the armoured cavalry soldiers hoped other units would be inspired to join them. This sympathy, scholar Peter Winn explains, was indebted to the fact that the Chicago boys were technocrats and thus fitted Pinochet's self-image of being "above politics". The economic policies espoused by the Chicago Boys and implemented by the junta initially caused several economic indicators to decline for Chile's lower classes. In accordance with legal rights established by the junta government, its members could not be dismissed without evidence of impairment. Allende's regime therefore threatened the most important aspect of a woman's role. As early as 1963, the U.S. via the CIA and U.S. multinationals such as ITT intervened in Chilean politics using a variety of tactics and millions of dollars to interfere with elections, ultimately helping plan the coup against Allende.[11][12][13]. The candidate was to be ratified by registered voters in a national plebiscite. [149][150] Los Prisioneros' marginalization by the media was further aggravated by their call to vote against the dictatorship on the plebiscite of 1988. Revista Nomadias, 22, 2016, p. 89. [15] Allende also clashed with Chile's largest circulation newspaper El Mercurio. In particular, Pinochet's decision to enact a plebiscite without formally alerting the other junta members. Contrary to popular belief, Pinochet was not the mastermind behind the coup. The relative economic success of the Pinochet dictatorship has brought about some political support for the former dictatorship. [18][19] These women who opposed Allende felt as though their fundamental values of family and motherhood were being threatened by Marxism. The dictatorship was established after the democratically-elected socialist government of Salvador Allende was overthrown in a US-backed coup d'état on 11 September 1973. Later, the 2004 Valech Report confirmed the figure of 3,200 deaths but reduced the estimated number of disappearances. At least 3,095 people were killed during Pinochet's dictatorship, according to government figures, and tens of thousands more were tortured or jailed for political reasons. The electoral system meant that the largely Pinochet-sympathetic right was overrepresented in parliament in such a way that it could block any reform to the constitution. Then, after his last and remarkable radio address, he shot himself rather than becoming a prisoner. The new junta quickly broke diplomatic relations with Cuba and North Korea, which had been established under the Allende government. The six countries eventually formulated a plan known as Operation Condor, in which the security forces of participating states would target active left-wing militants, guerrillas fighters, and their alleged sympathizers in the allied countries. The worst violence occurred within the first three months of the coup, with the number of suspected leftists killed or "disappeared" (desaparecidos) reaching several thousand. 2000. Dissidents to the dictatorship were not represented in the commission.[72]. They resisted Pinochet’s moves to undermine his own constitution. [66], Another dictatorship member critical of Pinochet, Arturo Yovane, was removed from his post as minister of mining in 1974 and appointed ambassador at the new Chilean embassy in Tehran. [143] The music catalog was censored with the aid of listas negras (black lists) but little is known on how these were composed and updated. [34] Following the return to democracy with the Concertacion government, the Rettig Commission, a multipartisan effort by the Aylwin administration to discover the truth about the human-rights violations, listed a number of torture and detention centers (such as Colonia Dignidad, the ship Esmeralda or Víctor Jara Stadium), and found that at least 3,200 people were killed or disappeared by the regime. [142] The curfew imposed by the dictatorship forced the remaining Nueva Canción scene, now rebranded as Canto Nuevo, into "semiclandestine peñas, while alternative groove disseminated in juvenile fiestas". "Chile since the coup: ten years of repression", Cynthia G. Brown, pp. Chile's main industry, copper mining, remained in government hands, with the 1980 Constitution declaring them "inalienable,"[88] but new mineral deposits were open to private investment. [5][6] Recently declassified documents show evidence of communication between the Chilean military and US officials, suggesting covert US involvement in assisting the military's rise to power. ', Foreign Affairs 93 (2014), 168-174. [77] Under Allende they were reorganised under the rubric National Confederation of Mothers' Centres (Confederación Nacional de Centros de Madres, COCEMA) and leadership of his wife, Hortensia Bussi, to encourage community initiatives and implement their policies directed at women. They were characterized by street demonstrations in the downtown avenues of the city in the mornings, strikes during the day, and barricades and clashes in the periphery of the city throughout the night. [114] [130] Velasco's military plan was to launch a massive sea, air, and land invasion against Chile. [130], The enormous amount of weaponry purchased by Peru caused a meeting between former US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and Pinochet in 1976. On 15 April 1973, workers from the El Teniente mining camp had ceased working, demanding higher wages. [81] Most notably the organisation attempted to assassinate Pinochet on the 7 September 1986 under 'Operation XX Century' but were unsuccessful. [47], In addition to the violence experienced within Chile, many people fled the regime; some 30,000 Chileans were exiled,[48][49][50] particularly to Argentina, however, Operation Condor, which linked South American dictatorships together against political opponents, meant that even these exiles could be subject to violence. Cotes : 18.6.1. mars 52-août 63 ». The "Chilean Variation" has been seen as a potential model for nations that fail to achieve significant economic growth. [139] The operation was overseen by Cuban naval intelligence, and also involved the Soviet Union. [9] One reason for this was financial, as many US businesses had investments in Chile, and Allende's socialist policies included the nationalization of Chile's major industries. In 1998, then-Brazilian congressman and retired military officer Jair Bolsonaro praised Pinochet, saying his regime "should have killed more people".[163]. His legacy remains very controversial: his supporters point to Chile’s flourishing economy and its ranking as one of Latin America’s most prosperous nations, while his opponents believe that these economic improvements came at a great human cost. Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte [pinoˈʧet] (* 25. COPACHI was founded by Cardinal Raul Silve Henriquez, Archbishop of Santiago, as an immediate response to the repression of the Pinochet regime. [71], Establishing a new constitution was a core issue for the dictatorship since it provided a mean of legitimization. During this time, the country was ruled by a military junta headed by General Augusto Pinochet. Santiago's Court of Appeals on Tuesday convicted five ex-officials of Augusto Pinochet's dictatorship for poisoning seven inmates at the former Chilean Public Prison in December 1981. The local Carabino station and executive branches of government under the influence of the dictatorship was second... To launch a massive sea, Air, and Pinochet was president of Chile ’ s dictatorship. Rural areas of south-central Chile [ 74 ] the formerly thriving Nueva canción suffered..., although criticizing it in public tens of thousands of employees were fired pinochet's military dictatorship other state-sector jobs establish. Allow him to continue in power were marked by inflation, poverty, a... The country was ruled by a joint decree ] for many Chileans this highlighted the disproportionate distribution wealth... 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